Monetary policy is a set of measures taken by Central Bank of the government to stabilize the economy (strengthening the national currency, accelerating economic growth, lowering prices, and so on). It is part of the macroeconomic policy, carried out by using various methods and tools, depending on objectives.
In developed economies monetary policy has to serve the function of stabilization and maintaining proper equilibrium in the economic system. But in case of underdeveloped countries, the monetary policy has to be more dynamic so as to meet the requirements of an expanding economy by creating good conditions for economic growth. Monetary policy can be strategic, intermediate and tactical. Under strategic or primary goals the following tasks are very important.
- Increase of employment among the population;
- Normalization of the price level;
- Containment of inflationary processes;
- Acceleration of economic growth;
- Increase in production volumes;
- Alignment (balancing) of the balance of payments of the state.
By contrast intermediate goals are realized by changing the interest rates and the amount of money in circulation. In this way, it is possible to adjust the current demand for the goods and to reduce (increase) the supply of money. The bottom line is to influence the level of price policy, attract investment, increase employment and increase production. At the same time, it is possible to maintain or revive the conjuncture in the money (commodity) market;
Tactical goals are of short-term nature. Their task is to accelerate the achievement of more important – intermediate and strategic objectives:
- Monitoring the supply of money;
- Control of the interest rate level;
- Control of the exchange rate.
Types of Monetary Policy
Each country chooses its own kind of monetary policy. It can vary, depending on external conditions, the state of the economy, the development of production, employment and other factors. The following types are distinguished:
1. Soft monetary policy (its second name is “cheap money policy”) is aimed at stimulating various sectors of the economy by regulating interest rates and increasing the amount of money. At the same time, the Central Bank performs the following operations: – Makes transactions on the purchase of government securities. All operations are conducted in the open market, and the proceeds are transferred to the banks’ reserves and to the population’s accounts. Such actions allow increasing the amount of money supply and improving the financial capacity of banks. As a result, the interbank loan is in great demand;
- Minimizes the rate of bank reservations, which significantly expands the lending opportunities for various sectors of the economy;
- Reduces the interest rate. As a consequence, commercial banks gain access to more profitable loans terms. At the same time, the volume of loans extended to the population on more favorable terms and the attraction of additional funds in the form of deposits.
2. Rigid monetary policy (its second name is “expensive money policy”) is aimed at imposing various restrictions, restraining the growth of money in circulation with the main goal – restraining inflationary processes. With a strict monetary policy, the Central Bank performs the following actions:
- Increases the limit of bank reservations. In this way, a reduction in the growth of the money supply is achieved;
- Raises the interest rate. For this reason, commercial structures are forced to stop the flow of borrowing from the Central Bank and to limit the issuance of loans to the public. The result is a suppression of the growth of money supply;
- Sells government securities. At the same time, transactions are made on the open market due to current accounts of the population and reserves of commercial credit and financial organizations. The result is the same as in the previous case – a decrease in the volume of the money supply.
When discussing marketing, think of it as a contact sport. Marketing should be seen as a game for every attorney. Consider it to be a game in which you are seeking to obtain the most points of contact, meaning how many individuals can be seen per week, month and year. This game should also consider the individuals that are on your marketing team who are amenable to refer your business? Below are some of the many influential tactics that can be used in order to win this so called “game” of marketing.
Obtaining the correct targets
When playing a contact sport the correct material is necessary, you wouldn’t be playing soccer while using a basketball would you? When marketing you also need to find the correct targets. If you want to win this so called marketing game it is crucial for you to market the correct individuals. These individuals are those who want and need your services. Take the time in coordinating the ideal targets with your experience in order to meet the “points of contact.”
Formulating the right type of friends
Although the process of meeting other bankruptcy attorneys and legal specialists is important, it is crucial to become friends with the more dominant and the most influential players in the market you are in. For instance, if you are in the market that deals with construction companies that are seeking bankruptcy, then it is important to accompany the trade associations and attend their conferences. At these conferences is where the correct network connections will be made.
Become a scholar
Although you may not recognize it, there are many individuals that are interested in the knowledge that you have. It is important to take time aside in order to share this knowledge through a blog, articles and trade publications by sharing it throughout social media. There are many industry event coordinators that are seeking to obtain speakers and workshop leaders. When speaking or leading a workshop this puts you in the front of the room, which gives you all of the attention more than the average propaganda could ever do.
Build a list
There are times where the individual may be interested in your legal services, however may not be apt in purchasing. You can obtain these individuals through grabbing their attention by adding them to a mailing list in order to first get their approval. The mailing list that you create can administer a beneficial source of potential revenue and clients. However, it is crucial to keep the information that is given fresh with valuable information such as what is trending, events and news on bankruptcy.
You work throughout your life, invest and save wisely. You are enough careful of risks that threaten your savings and you would definitely like to pass work on to your dear ones after investing so much time, sacrifice and effort. However, you should be pretty careful about the least amount of government interference and tax while passing on your work. There are some well-established ways to make sure that the intended recipients get your financial legacy properly. Family limited partnerships, private foundations, wills, irrevocable trusts, revocable trusts and an alphabet soup of strategies are some of the indispensable parts in order to secure a financial plan.
Here is a list of some recommendations to minimize inheritance conflicts.
Address personal property separately
Make a separate list of your personal properties with proper instructions that who should inherit what item. The family members often start conflict among themselves regarding the inheritance of property. You can prepare a Personal Property Memorandum, i.e. a separate personal property list as a part of the will. You must put the date and signature while preparing a handwritten or typed list.
Update estate plan regularly
Make changes in estate planning as per changing circumstances, especially after a divorce. Under matrimonial laws, most of the states favour former spouses. You should immediately disinherit your former spouses, in order to avoid bizarre and unwanted results. Other changes in life like death or divorce of a child or incapacitation, illness or addiction of any beneficiary should also be considered while updating your estate plan.
Hold an open discussion on special assets
Family input is advisable in some situations. Conditions like the succession of a family business, care for a handicapped child, home require children and parents for continued enjoyment of a vacation should be listed on the same page.
Consider a prenuptial agreement
Inheritance conflict is mostly the reason for a second marriage. Conflict can be minimized at death with the help of a post-nuptial or prenuptial agreement. It clearly states the distribution of property among the spouses and other beneficiaries.
Clearly identify gifts and loans
Children with financial incapability are often helped by their parents. Parents generally offer help either as gifts or loans. Conflict can be generated due to the issue of unpaid loans from parents. Parents should clearly state about everything in their estate plan.
Property Fund Trust
In order to avoid conflict, you should properly retitle and fund all your assets. All the life insurance policies will name the trust as beneficiary if the will indicates equal distribution among testator’s children.
Estate planning is something no one really wants to deal with if only because you have to take on the subject of your mortality. Given the rather morose and unhealthy mindset we’ve developed regarding the end of life, it’s safe to say that most people try to avoid talking about death like, well, death. It isn’t an easy topic to bring up, and it certainly doesn’t get any easier when discussing how your belongings will be disseminated after your passing. What’s more, when it comes to your finances, the topic of estate planning is all the more difficult because it involves actually coming face to face with some serious numbers.
It’s too bad that so many people tend to face their final financial planning as a way of showing how little they’ve accomplished over their lifetime. People need to focus on the fact that they are making a plan the benefits their family after you are gone. They should be allowed to grieve, and proper estate planning accomplishes this task.
Here are five secrets (truth be told, it’s just common sense) to successful estate planning:
1. Draft A Will – Mocking up a simple version of your will doesn’t cost much and at least starts the process of where things may stand when you pass.
2. Name the Executor – As the title suggests, this is the person who will handle all aspects of your estate. You want someone you can trust, but you also want someone who you know will do a proper job.
3. A Living will – A living will scares a lot of people because it makes you face the possibility that you’ve either suffered a serious accident or are completely unable to communicate with those around you near the end of your life. Major court cases & drawn-out family dramas have come from a living will not being available & everyone scrambling to perhaps know what you might think would be possibly OK to do for you. It can get messy.
4. Update Your Will – Not only do you need to start the process of planning your estate, but you need to review the documentation at least once a year. Any changes that may come your way such as major life events (i.e., deaths, marriages, etc.) may change the contents of your will, so it pays to look it over regularly.
5. Communication – Before you pass & a final reading of your will takes place, and certainly before you are unable to communicate with your loved ones, you need to keep the lines of communication open so that you can tell everyone what plans you’re making. Yes, your will is the legal document of record, but should an issue arise regarding your intentions, you’ve at least been keeping everyone abreast to your wants.
Estate planning is not a fun time. Rather than approach the matter as a dreary “to-do”, though, think of it as just another note in your day planner. It is a rather defining moment in adulthood and one that everyone must understand is perhaps the most important thing they’ll do to help their family out when you’ve passed on. But it isn’t a way to signify an end to life; it’s more a symbol of you firmly having your sights set on the future.
Don’t let your personal estate planning fall through the cracks. Be sure to address this important documentation as soon as possible for sake of you & your loved ones’ peace of mind today.